Economic cycle dating

Meanwhile, trading conditions became harder with growing competition and mounting tariff protection at home and abroad. Raw materials were purchased from farther afield and new sources of power were harnessed to supplement home-produced coal. These units and the whole economy were increasingly influenced and controlled by the government.

economic cycle dating-31

The average size of establishment calculated from the national figures was 141 workers. More detailed figures are available for the metal trade alone.

Establishments employing under ten persons are not included in the table at all; if they had been the percentage of workers employed in works employing under a hundred might well have reached 40 per cent. 7) Figures are for Birmingham and the Black Country in 1949. Table 2 sets out the distribution in 1949 of plants and employment in Birmingham and the Black Country for the metal trades (including jewellery and guns). 8) The 3,599 plants with over ten workers are further analysed in Table 3.

Between 18 new influences played upon the existing industrial structure in Birmingham but the metal industry continued in its predominant role, although changing in character with the times.

Also important in making practicable the growth in size was the availability with the development of joint-stock organization of trained and trustworthy managers and executives, professional men quite unconnected with the firm's owners, and of the capital supplies required.

In 1880 the only important trade in which the large establishment existed exclusively was the military rifle trade. 2) Machinery was also used to a considerable extent in the wire, screw, tube, sheet-metal, pin, cut-nail, ammunition, and coining trades.

These metal trades became more mechanized still and mechanization spread to others so that by 1914 hand labour had been largely superseded although mass production and standardization had not gone far except in military rifles, tyres, cycles, and engineering, (fn. Parallel with this has been the expansion of the new industries which started on a relatively large scale, and in which firms often became still larger by amalgamation and commercial success. The trend has been strengthened in Birmingham by the decline in the relative importance of those trades for which a smaller scale was economically practical, and by the elimination in other trades of the smaller firms which failed to or could not afford to adopt the new techniques.This free content was digitised by double rekeying. This has been further encouraged by the availability of cheaper sites, with lower rates and with positions on the arterial roads and room for further expansion. The integration of processes and the inclusion of outworkers to make a unit more self-contained have also increased its size.The First World War speeded up and further extended the trend.

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